- Cardiovascular Disease Case Study
- Cardiovascular Disease Case Study | Jacqueline Farralls Portfolio
- 7.1 Are cardiovascular diseases a growing problem?
- Nutritional Assessment and Counseling for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease
The UK has made progress on bringing down the premature death rate associated with cardiovascular disease CVD in recent years. To continue to make progress in preventing CVD, we can learn from other nations who have successfully delivered programmes that improve cardiovascular health. The report, International Cardiovascular Disease Prevention case studies, outlines ten case studies that illustrate approaches that may be applicable and effective within the UK.tiolomsembnigy.tk
Cardiovascular Disease Case Study
Download the report [PDF]. Alongside the case studies, the report also makes recommendations for how to implement effective CVD prevention programmes in the UK, and provides background on current CVD prevention programmes in England. How your heart works Your heart rate. Studies that were specifically mentioned in this designation were the secondary prevention trial CHAOS 32 and the Iowa Women's Health Study 13 , one of the prospective cohort studies.
There is a growing body of epidemiologic literature on the relation between vitamin E intake and coronary heart disease. Several prospective cohort studies have been published on this topic, and they generally support an inverse association of vitamin E intake and coronary heart disease morbidity or mortality. Although evidence for a dose-response relation is somewhat lacking, the consistency of findings across the cohort studies increases the confidence that this association may be causal.
To date, only 2 randomized trials, both using vitamin E supplements, have addressed the question of whether vitamin E intake may be related to coronary heart disease 29 , One of these, the ATBC Study, a primary prevention trial in male smokers, provided little evidence that vitamin E intake may decrease the incidence of angina pectoris or mortality rates from coronary heart disease 29 , The other trial, a secondary prevention trial, provided evidence that vitamin E supplements may decrease risk of recurrence of nonfatal myocardial infarction, but not fatal cardiovascular events In a follow-up of subjects with definite myocardial infarction at entry into the ATBC Study, similar findings were also observed Overall, these studies, although perhaps broadly consistent with an inverse association of vitamin E intake with coronary disease, are neither definitive nor convincing in this matter.
The use of the Hill criteria to examine whether there is evidence of a causal relation between vitamin E and coronary heart disease shows that there is some consistency among the results of the prospective cohort studies, with all of them suggesting that vitamin E intake from foods or from supplements is inversely associated with risk of coronary disease. However, the evidence for a dose-response relation is less consistent among the studies, whereas the strength of association is modest although relatively strong for associations of dietary factors with chronic disease endpoints.
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Plausible biological mechanisms related to prevention of oxidative modification of LDL are based on numerous laboratory studies examining the role of vitamin E and other antioxidants in atherogenesis. Following the US Preventive Services Task Force criteria, there is little evidence from randomized trials that vitamin E supplementation may reduce risk of coronary heart disease, although it may play a role in prevention of nonfatal myocardial infarction in those with coronary heart disease.
Evidence from prospective cohort studies is reasonably strong and consistent, and the one ecologic study to examine associations of food availability and coronary heart disease rates is consistent with an inverse association of vitamin E and coronary heart disease.
Few case-control studies and no pronouncements from expert committees exist on this topic. Overall, the evidence can be deemed to support an inverse association of vitamin E intake and coronary heart disease. Whether there is sufficient evidence on which to base public health nutrition recommendations is a matter of debate.
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Volume Article Contents. Vitamin E and heart disease: a case study Lawrence H Kushi. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation.
Cardiovascular Disease Case Study | Jacqueline Farralls Portfolio
Permissions Icon Permissions. ABSTRACT The role of nutritional epidemiology studies in the development of nutritional recommendations has been controversial, in part because individual studies supporting either side of a given issue can often be identified. TABLE 1. Open in new tab. TABLE 2. TABLE 3. TABLE 4. National Research Council. Google Preview. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Recommendations for use of folic acid to reduce number of spina bifida cases and other neural tube defects. Search ADS. A comparison of prospective and retrospective assessments of diet in the study of breast cancer. An investigation of recall bias in the reporting of past food intake among breast cancer cases and controls. Antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality in a longitudinal population. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly.
Lower ischemic heart disease incidence and mortality among vitamin supplement users. The Scottish Heart Health Study. Dietary intake by food frequency questionnaire and odds ratios for coronary heart disease risk. The antioxidant vitamins and fibre.
7.1 Are cardiovascular diseases a growing problem?
Self-administration of a questionnaire on chest pain and intermittent claudication. Intake of dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. Does beta-carotene explain why reduced cancer risk is associated with vegetable and fruit intake? The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease.
Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Fat, caloric intake, and obesity: lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer. Inverse correlation between plasma vitamin E and mortality from ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology.
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Nutritional Assessment and Counseling for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease
Best but oft-forgotten practices: the design, analysis, and interpretation of Mendelian randomization studies. Causal criteria in nutritional epidemiology. Related articles in Google Scholar. Association between dietary raw garlic intake and newly diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A population-based study. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome as a rare cause of chronic thromboemboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Association between dyslipidemia and CCL2 in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Citing articles via Google Scholar. Latest Most Read Most Cited The association of vitamin D status and supplementation during pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus: a Chinese prospective birth cohort study.
Health Technology Assessment. Archived from the original on Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control 1 ed. World Health Organization. Retrieved Nov 11, Current Atherosclerosis Reports. World Journal of Cardiology Review. October Nature Genetics. International Journal of Cardiology. International Journal of Endocrinology. American Heart Association. The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke. Postgraduate Medical Journal.
Retrieved May 22, Archived from the original on May 23, Retrieved May 23, Sex difference in ischaemic heart disease mortality and risk factors in 46 communities: an ecologic analysis. Cardiovasc Risk Factors. Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. Archived from the original on 27 April Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Retrieved 15 May The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.